What is the first thing that comes to mind when you hear “A.I.”? To some it’s a complex intimidating term that has nothing to do with their field of work or daily lives.The other side of the spectrum, immediately think humanoid robots with piercing red eyes wanting to takeover mankind. Even though they are on the opposite side of the coin, they have one thing in common. They’re using some type of A.I. without them even knowing.
Artificial Intelligence are in everyone’s routines from the smallest things like searching something up on google, to more substantial tasks like commercial airline flights.
What is A.I.?
It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable. http://jmc.stanford.edu/artificial-intelligence/what-is-ai/index.html
Artificial Intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines. Using algorithms to help us solve problems by looking at vast amounts of data to lear to complete a particular task, also know as Machine Learning. On the other hand algorithms, by definition, are step by step instructions that is used to complete a task. The key word is “learn” compared to “instructions” when comparing the two.
Types: 2 Out of 4
1. Reactive machines
The most basic types of AI systems are purely reactive, and have the ability neither to form memories nor to use past experiences to inform current decisions. Deep Blue, IBM’s chess-playing supercomputer, which beat international grandmaster Garry Kasparov in the late 1990s, is the perfect example of this type of machine.
2. Limited memory
This Type II class contains machines can look into the past. Self-driving cars do some of this already. For example, they observe other cars’ speed and direction. That can’t be done in a just one moment, but rather requires identifying specific objects and monitoring them over time.
We might stop here, and call this point the important divide between the machines we have and the machines we will build in the future. However, it is better to be more specific to discuss the types of representations machines need to form, and what they need to be about.
3. Theory of mind
Machines in the next, more advanced, class not only form representations about the world, but also about other agents or entities in the world. In psychology, this is called “theory of mind” — the understanding that people, creatures and objects in the world can have thoughts and emotions that affect their own behavior.
The final step of AI development is to build systems that can form representations about themselves. Ultimately, we AI researchers will have to not only understand consciousness, but build machines that have it.